Influenza host tropism

Majority of influenza A viruses reside and circulate among animal populations, seldom infecting humans due to host range restriction. Yet when some avian strains do acquire the ability to overcome species barrier, they might become adapted to humans, replicating efficiently and causing diseases, leading to potential pandemic. Further understanding and determining host tropism would be important in identifying zoonotic influenza virus strains capable of crossing species barrier and infecting humans. This website provides computational models for the prediction of influenza host tropism.

  • Protein prediction

    Prediction models for host tropism prediction of individual influenza proteins including glycoproteins HA and NA, nucleoprotein NP, both matrix proteins M1 and M2, both non-structural proteins NS1 and NS2, as well as the rest of the viral polymerase proteins PA, PB1, PB1-F2, and PB2.

  • Strain prediction

    Combined prediction model utilizing sequences from all 11 influenza proteins for prediction of viral strain host tropism.


  • Dataset

    Influenza protein sequences isolated from avian and human hosts were obtained from Influenza Research Database (IRD)

  • Machine learning

    The machine learning algorithm Random Forest was used to train the data and construct prediction models for individual proteins and strain