FluLeap provides models for host tropism prediction of influenza proteins. The computational models were trained on avian and human influenza protein sequences and are able to accurately classify between the two hosts with a minimum of 96.57% accuracy.

Thus, most of the time, the prediction models would be able to identify the host where the protein sequences were isolated from. For example, when protein sequences from a H3N8 avian strain, A/American green-winged teal/Ohio/13OS1844/2013 were input for prediction, the prediction models would accurately classify host tropism for all its proteins as Avian. Similarly, when protein sequences from a seasonal H3N2 human strain, A/Helsinki/951/2013 were tested, the results for host tropism predictions were all human. To run the host tropism predictions, please click on the buttons below:

Avian strain Seasonal human strain

However, a potentially zoonotic avian strain would show different results. If protein sequences from an avian strain were predicted to have human host tropism, the protein is highly likely to have adapted to human host. This can be illustrated by virus strains from the recent H7N9 outbreak in China. Predictions of protein sequences from a virus strain isolated from one of the first H7N9 patients, A/Shanghai/02/2013 show that some of its proteins originated from avian source. Phylogenetic analyses of genomic sequences from H7N9 virus strains revealed A/chicken/Shanghai/S1053/2013 to be a likely source, indicating it as a potential zoonotic strain (World Health Organization, 2013). Running predictions for the protein sequences from the zoonotic strain revealed that 6 of its proteins have acquired human host tropism characteristics. To run the host tropism predictions, please click on the buttons below:

Zoonotic avian strain Avian origin human strain

The table below summarizes prediction results for all 4 influenza virus strains:



Avian strain

Zoonotic avian strain

Avian origin human strain

Seasonal human strain

A/American green-winged teal/Ohio/13OS1844/2013A/chicken/Shanghai/S1053/2013A/Shanghai/02/2013A/Helsinki/951/2013

Host tropism predictions on these 4 influenza virus strains demonstrate the capability of FluLeap in identifying potentially hazardous zoonotic avian strains.

To run predictions on more sample sequences obtained from IRD, please click on the button below:
Sample sequences